is a word that has multiple meanings. For our purposes, it is NOT a synonym for "Debate".
A Valid argument is one where, if the supporting premises (evidence, statements) are true, the conclusion will be true. Certain Logical Fallacies will make an Argument "Invalid".
A Sound argument is one that is Valid AND the supporting premises are actually true.
an Argument succeeds by using factually true evidence and logical reasoning (premises) in support to prove a statement (claim) to be true. Debates should be won by the side that presents the strongest Arguments, or most successfully defends their Arguments.
Persuasion succeeds by using any means available (no requirement for Sound Arguments) to get someone to think, act, or feel in the way you want them to. One can (and should) use Sound Argument in service of Persuasion, but you can persuade with bad arguments (and it happens often). Logical Fallacies can be very Persuasive.
It's okay to use a "Biased" source (i.e. a source that has an opinion / position / side on your topic) as long as you are aware that the source is biased , recognize how that bias will affect the quality of the information presented, and are prepared to defend it. However, "biased" sources can be easier for your opponents to attack, though just being "biased" doesn't automatically make something wrong.
The word "Bias" has multiple meanings (remember how we talked about definitions being important?). When we talk about bias in terms of Argument and Persuasion, it could refer to having a preference for a certain opinion or side of an argument, but it could also be refering to "Cognitive Biases," which are shortcuts the brain takes to make decisions, or unconscious preferences the brain may have, that have been demonstrated by psychologists or other scientists and social scientists. "Confirmation Bias" is one example we will discuss below.
Once you have done some research (though RE-Search is an ongoing process), it's time to start preparing for the debate.
(6. Finally, Remember that a formal, oppositional, Debate is only one method of discussion on controversial issues. Be aware that in the real world its often better to find and build consensus and understanding, rather than just the "attack and defend" of a debate. Also be aware that, in the real world, not everyone "plays fair" with evidence-based arguments, and that slick Persuasion and fallacy-based arguments may be more common than well reasoned arguments.)
Logical Fallacies are things that "break" a logical argument and make it "invalid".
Pointing out Logical Fallacies in opposing arguments can be part of a strategy in refuting them
Note, however, that just because an argument is fallacious, it doesn't mean that the claim/conclusion is False. Instead it means that the argument is invalid and cannot be used to "prove" the claim. Claiming otherwise is called the "Fallacy Fallacy"
ex. The Reason Fortnite is a very popular game (claim), is because millions of people like it (premise/support).
Is an example of the Fallacy of "Begging the Question." (you can't use the claim as support for itself, and "popular" means "lots of people like it"). The flawed argument doesn't mean that Fortnite isn't popular, just that your argument hasn't 'proved' it is.
Some 'persuaders' intentionally use logical fallacies in their arguments to make their claims seem to be true or more appealing, or in their Refutations and Rebuttals. This might work for "Persuasion", but it's not okay as an "Argument".
One of the reasons people can be easily Persuaded by fallacious Arguments has to do with the workings of the brain. This is a complex topic in Psychology.
Here are simple definitions provided by Psychology Today
"Bias" in this case doesn't mean "Racial Bias," which might be what first comes to mind when you hear that word, but rather it is "... a tendency, inclination, or prejudice toward or against something or someone."
"A Heuristic is a mental shortcut that allows an individual to make a decision, pass judgment, or solve a problem quickly and with minimal mental effort. While heuristics can reduce the burden of decision-making and free up limited cognitive resources, they can also be costly when they lead individuals to miss critical information or act on unjust biases."
Congnitve Biases aren't fallacies, but can make people susceptible to believing fallacies or affect ones ability to see fallacies. For this reason, it is useful to know about them. See also this explanation from the Logically Fallacious website.